This document was re-typed by Evelyn Kinman on June 12, 2007

Evelyn Kinman is a great granddaughter of Nellie Siskiyou Rockfellow Phillips.

Names and information in parenthesis have been added by Evelyn Kinman, based on genealogy records. Otherwise the text of Alice’s Memoirs has not been altered, including spelling and punctuation. 

Alice Rockfellow/Meacham/Forster/Ough  wrote her memoirs of the exciting life of a Pioneer child. Alice is the daughter of William H. Rockfellow and Harriet Angeline Hendrix Rockfellow.



BY Alice Rockfellow Meacham Foster Ough


In the year of 1853 a congregation of men and women were sitting around  William Hurst Rockfellow’s farm house. (The name was formerly spelled Rockafellar.)  They were setting up preliminary plans toward setting out on the long trek across the plains. William had been home from the gold mines of California. (He was a 49’er miner about two years), but he had the fever still, and the people were hearing much in regard to the gold mining of ’49.  Many debates had taken place with the result that we now see around this farm.  It appears that William was the only one who had had this experience, so naturally everyone looked to him as a leader.  Now they were getting their wagons and teams equipped for a long journey of six months and they knew it would be a hard trip, so they fixed their wagons as comfortably as possible.


In those days it looked to the people like they were going to travel to the end of the world. William had been a leading spirit ever since his father had moved his family to Iowa from Indiana.  Now those young people who had grown up together and had families were among the immigrants.  They were all acquainted and expected to have lots of fun.  There were about 50 wagons, some one-horse, some two, and some oxen teams.


It made a fine showing that bright May morning as we started out. Some were laughing and some were crying. It was harder for the women than the men to leave their loved ones. The yard was lined with people with good wishes, both young and old. Many of the men of the neighborhood rode with us to our first camp, and helped to strike the first campfire. Henry Rockafellar and my mother’s father, (Henry D. Hendrix), traveled two days with us as also did some others.


We had plenty of fun in the evenings up to the time we had to look out for the Indians. We started in early spring and it took us six months on the road. Many of these immigrants were pretty old. They had given up homes that they had lived in all their lives for the sake of making more money, and the trail was great for them. Two years previous to our starting had been terrible times with the Indians massacring the whites. The following year there had been some depredations and we did not just know what our fate would be, so we were on guard all the time. It was proven later that the Mormons were mixed up with us.  There was a tenor of fear all of the time; mothers were afraid to let their children out of their sight after leaving the settlement.


We crept along slowly. William’s wagons were a light two-horse wagon for his family, and a big ox team for provisions, by name Duke and Brandy. We slept in that wagon and I never got up until we were traveling. We had some seamless sacks of soda cracker in this wagon. I remember making my breakfast out of these soda crackers, at the same time looking back at my mother and talking.  I remember one morning we started very early; we had camped that night without water; the stocks were very dry.  We had traveled several miles since starting that morning. All of a sudden an ox whirled out of the team and started to run. They ran quite a distance before they were stopped. Men said they smelled water and we soon came to water. Our teams were near the front of the train; old Duke and Brandy just trailed along after the team; they did not need a driver. When night came on and our day’s drive was finished, our teams circled around with their wagons placing the wagon’s tongue up against the next wagons and all around, making a circle or enclosure so we had a complete circle. Then every man would attend to his horses and guards would take turns watching, others got wood and  water, placed tents, and the horses would eat their fill of the long grass, and then the men would tie each by his own wagon, but still the men would patrol the country near us. In order to get water some days the drive would be short, others longer, but we always stopped when we reached water. 


When we made camp, it was like a little town. People just swarmed around, each woman making preparation for her own family’s comfort, plenty of laughing and singing going on. The pickets would sometimes pass the word around for quiet, they heard something they did not understand and like. It was always over in a little time and everyone was happy again for the word came, “only a coyote”.


I remember my first thought would be to pick flowers; there were always plenty inside our little fort.  There was one family; father, mother, and one son.  They were English, Beeson by name, and my first thought was to get some flowers for “Auntie” Beeson. Dear white-haired mother, how much I loved her.  I am sure her influence followed me through life. I always took my bouquet to her, sure of it’s being appreciated, even if it was nothing but weeds, because I thought them pretty.  She always admired them, (I was only four years of age). She always handed me her chair, said she did not need it as she had her work to do.  I always left in a ceremonious way.  We were friends many, many years after we were settled.  So many pleasant memories come up as I write this; there are so many way marks in a life so full as mine has been.  This dear woman, father, and son have long since gone on their last journey. The son also was my very dear friend for many years. 


Up to this time nothing of moment had occurred, but now some of the horses were giving out, not being very well fed and strong when we started. Among the first was my mother’s sister and family.  They were not very well fixed for such a long trip, so they decided to take up a homestead in a new country where they farmed for a good many years.  There were also others who stopped with them in different points in that state.  We were not molested by Indians on the trip although they would often visit our camps and beg for ‘mulumuc’ as they called food.  One Buck picked up a dish of soft soap, thought it was something good to eat, mother took it away from him.  They tried to buy my six month old sister.  She was so black from suntan and had black eyes, they thought she was a papoose or Indian baby.  They tried to steal her and we had to watch very close or they would have taken her. They followed us many miles to get her.  I don’t remember things very definitely because I was too young.  A child of four does not take note of everything. One thing I do remember is crossing a big river. There was no ferry, so my father with some others contrived a way to cross.  They swam over with the stock and took the wagon beds and caught them up and made boats and families and everything crossed over that way.  We crossed without accident and then it took a good many hours to put everything right again.  From that place, I don’t remember much in crossing the mountain.  In some places the rocky ledges and rough places were so bad that the wagons would be let down with ropes.


Our first stop was in Oregon, in Wagner Creek, in the Rogue Valley, a very beautiful one.  There had been a big Indian out break here the year before we came. The old fort was still standing at Wagner Creek. This creek takes its name from a man who settled first in this place.  Afterwards he married a younger sister of my mother’s.  At the time he had an abundance of green vegetables, potatoes, etc., in which we were in great need, as we had been without them in so many months.  We were nearly starved for some fresh food.  My father and brothers settled on a farm close to Wagner’s on the same creek.  We could see each other’s houses.  I remember my mother went over the creek on a board.  She went to Wagner’s to grind her coffee.  One morning we were going over and I fell into the water.  It was so deep it washed me down to the road crossing before mother could get to me.  The water was shallow there.  We were both very much frightened.  Another time I ran ahead of her and opened wide the gate going out of the farmyard, and then I ran to meet her and saw a big snake, probably three feet long stretched out full length probably sunning itself.  I got such a start but could not stop and jumped over it with a screech.  Mother picked up a stick and killed it, but it proved to be a harmless snake.


My favorite family, the Beesons, settled about two miles up this creek and many were the visits we had, and on farther still were the Stearns family, whose daughter and myself grew up together, great friends.  We spent the winter of ’53 very pleasantly there.  In the winter the men built fences and put up barns, chicken houses, got the ground ready to plant, set out the trees and many necessary things were done.  Also we stocked up with honey bees, about twelve stands.  One of my duties after being old enough was to watch them swarm and then tell someone about it.  The following summer, after arriving in Rogue Valley, the people were much exercised about the Indians.  The previous year there had been an Indian outbreak and much depredation had been committed, so there was much talk and expectation of other outbreaks as there had been rumors of a war north of us.  So the preparations were carried out for our protection.  Fort Wagner was made strong and provisioned for the people around the country. The building ground was on an incline on one side so that at one point there was a root house built back under the hill and a house built over it.  This gave us a tool house and a store room.  The root house would provide a good protection from the bullets and for the women and children. One night the arrangement was carried out.  We thought the Indians were coming.  The fall of ’54 two men had taken up a claim just across Bear Creek from us, and were building up quite a nice farm, but they were not good neighbors, always doing dirt to someone, so consequently not well liked.  They were looked upon with suspicion by everyone.  It seemed that through their talk, people were looking for trouble.  The word had been passed around to be ready to fly at the first intimation of trouble. The Valley is surrounded by high mountains so we were always watching for signals between the Indians, as it was said that that was their way of telephoning to each party.  Now occasionally we had noticed one fire. This time in the night the guards awakened us and told us that there were fires at different places on the mountains and from the way they acted it was as though they were signals.  It was thought best for us to go where it was safe for the women and children.  The first intimation that I had of the move, and old friend took me in his arms with just a blanket wrapped around me.  Mother had her baby in her arms.  Others had bedding and we were soon deposited in the root house. The children fell asleep and the elders stood around and talked. The next morning since nothing happened that night, we all went to our homes. Nothing more happened that week, but in the meantime father had reason to be suspicious of Bingham and Dailey.  He did not like their actions and laid a trap to catch them.  And He and others went over one evening to chat with them for awhile. In talking they let fall a few words that were very, very suspicious and when they left that evening it was fully settled in their minds that these men were the cause of all the disturbances and signal fires.  Well, father and the boys laid a trap for Bingham and Dailey.  The next thing was to prove it.  Nearly all the neighbors placed the blame on them. Everybody had felt so sure that they were going to punish them, so they did.  Their plans were laid out; father and some others dropped in to chat with them.  Told all the blood curdling Indian stories that they could think of. Pretty soon some more men dropped in, making a half dozen or so in the house.  Soon a gun was fired near the cabin and then in the windows. Our men yelled, “Indians, run boys”.  Father stayed by Bingham and another man watched the partner. They ran for Bear Creek, the supposed Indians letting out war whoops and firing all of the time.  Father said again, “Run boys, run”, and started for the foot log, starting his man first. It was a very dark night.  Just as they were barely started, with just a little help, Bingham fell into the water and father pretended to be helping him to get out, but when he would have him nearly safe his hand would slip and back he would go into the water. And, all of the time Dailey was having the same kind of treatment. These men were so badly frightened they could hardly get their breath.


Well, after their ducking, father and the other men accused them and told them why they did what they did, and told them that there were no Indians in the country, that it was a concocted plan of the ranchers to punish them, for they had found out it was their plan to frighten the people.  They finally owned up that they did it out of spite. They were the worst pair of whipped curs that you ever saw.  They were not long in getting out of the country, and left after dark. After that everything settled in peace and quiet.


The children started in school.  A country school is usually far away from most everyone.  This one was about two miles from our house.  When I was little, father took me on horseback.  We had a big pair of roan horses for our team and they were also broken to the saddle.  This morning I am thinking of, the hired man took me.  Father lifted me up into the saddle. Tracy was the horse’s name.  The man looked around and saw Jack, a neighbor boy.  He says, “Jump up behind, Jack.”  That was the last I remember for several hours.  Tracy would not carry double, he threw us all.  I think Jack and the man were not hurt, but I was knocked senseless.  When I came to my senses, the doctor and Mother were working over me.  I was wrapped in a wet sheet, but I was soon myself.  The school threw the young folks together often. “Auntie” Beeson and her son brought us together at her home many times, and such lovely times we did have.  My particular chum was a year older than I.  I remember I always looked up to her. I thought she knew so much more than I did. She always came to the parties.  “Auntie” Beeson’s flowers were my delight.  The flowers were fenced in just a great big circle and they had all kinds of flowers.  I could never find a weed, everything was so neat.  I can close my eyes and make myself see it just as plain as if I were there and the dear white haired lady with her gentle voice and ways.  And her son was so tender with her in so many ways.  He had a great deal to do with the formation of the character of those whom they invited in their home.  She seemed never to tire in answering my questions. Minder and myself were the ones who were allowed to help her get the dinner on her table and it was our delight to do our best.  She let me go to her milk room and bring everything.  She would have it all ready just to bring in; cake, pie, cottage cheese, and many other things. We would want to help wait table, but no, it was our dinner and we must eat first.  I think Wilber,(Welborn Beeson) and a friend who crossed the plains at the time they did and always lived with them; and helped them with the farm work, I think he always helped Wilbur at the table.  She seldom would let us wash dishes, but we would help put things away.  Then the rest of them wanted us to go and play.  When they put up a new barn we had a big frolic. They put up two big swings and Wilbur had some big boys about his own age and they would swing us and the time came all too soon for us to go home.  I always got the first ripe raspberries. Wilbur said he hid them so they would not be seen and that delighted me.  He would say, “Come Allie, I have something to show you”, and he would say, “Now stand there and shut your eyes”, and he would tell me when to open, after he had a leaf in my hand, “Now Allie!”, he would say, and there were the most luscious big raspberries, the very first, and I would be just as delighted as he expected.  Then he would go and divide them with his mother.  Those days were long ago. Mother and son are both gone to their Savior a long time ago.


Father sold out his interests to his brothers.  There were too many for one business.  Father was naturally a roamer, but mother wanted to settle down.  He was dissatisfied, so we move on into California.  Yreka was where he was headed.  Mining had always been a fascination for him, and he stayed with it nearly all of his life.  He would start in some business, but eventually would get back to prospecting.  There were many paying mines at the time about Yreka, and many placers.  But he went beyond this camp.  We crossed some mountains to a camp called Hungry Creek. There he went to mining for awhile, then sold out and bought a band of cows and sold milk.  He would deliver his milk on the back of a mule, would carry two cans on each side of the saddle.  When he returned from his trips we would find the loveliest little balls of butter in the cans.  The constant shaking churned all the cream.  We got the butter, the customers got the milk.  He kept at this work for quite awhile, and in the meantime we had built a house and mother was keeping a boarding house. Our house had never been finished, no doors, and the front of the kitchen had not been boarded up yet, although we were occupying the house with curtains for doors.  This was impressed on my mind by an incident that came nearly being serious.  We were working in the kitchen on this morning and some one hollered, “Look out for the cow”.  The butchers were driving a wild cow, and she was chasing everyone.  She got a look at us in the kitchen and ran for us.  Mother had presence of mind enough to run for the bedroom and chucked us children under the bed but she jumped on top. She was teased about this for a long time, but the cow came no further than into the kitchen and dinning room door, but we were badly frightened.  Dropping the curtains checked the cow.  We kept a few boarders and mother’s table was always good, as she was a very fine cook.


I recall a hydraulic mine just by us.  There must have been about ten acres of ground that was being worked every day and it was very interesting to me.  When our work was finished I would go down to an old oak tree that overlooked the work.  I would climb up high and sit there for hours and watch them work.  My parents decided not to spend another winter there, as times were growing dull, but they had made money during the time they were there so father got a place for us to winter in at Coles’ near the foot of the Siskiyous.  The next act was a means to get us out of there.  There had never been a wagon across those mountains.  Everything was brought by pack train and there was also a train called Express Train which carried express and mail.  That was the only means we had of getting out. Father knowing the express man, sent me out ahead with him on horseback to stay with a friend in Yreka. I spent a few weeks there and then the rest came on riding mules.  Then we rode the stage for thirty miles.  They ran the Concord Coaches.  When loaded they were like riding in a rocking chair, but when not loaded you had to hold tight with hands and feet. Father owned a fine pair of big horses, he sold these to Coles where we were going.  They owned the hotel and when we got there they soon came to the understanding whereby we were to do the work for the place, mother doing the cooking and housework, father helping where he was needed as chore boy, and I also was mother’s helper.  We spent a very happy winter.  When spring came, father and mother wanted their own business.  They had never worked for wages, having always worked for themselves and there was too little money and too much restraint in this, so father began looking around for something else.  There was a good station just twenty four miles above Coles’ and he was wanting to sell.  An old bachelor owned it and wanted to sell out as he could not run it alone.  So father bought this place and we lived there a number of years.  When father informed Coles of his intentions, they were very much shocked and tried to compel us to stay, and said we agreed to stay longer.  They never did forgive father. They would not let him hire the team he sold them to move his family.  Their horses were not working so father walked up to our new home and tried to get a team there but they only had one saddle horse, so we started on that , mother riding, and carrying her baby, a little girl several years of age, but the riding was so bad she had to walk part of the time.  Then father would ride and carry the child.  Finally mother rode on in, and father and I walked as long as I could stand it, and then I lay down and wanted to go to sleep. About that time somebody brought the horse and we rode in.


That was our home for a good many years.  We built up a big trade, we built a new house and barn, and had lots of cows and chickens and made butter and cheese for market and had a fine garden.  We had a big grain field. The woods were full of wild animals, at that time, and the bears would kill our pigs.  They came and hid in a big growth of willows about half a mile from us.  I remember one day a teamster came in quite excited and said he saw a bear cross the road, just abut half mile ahead of him and go into the brush, so every man that could get a gun started and tried to surround the brush, but Mr. Bruin was too smart for them.  While the men were creeping up on him, as they supposed, a horseman came along and said he saw the bear just outside the field climbing a hill.  So that ended the bear hunt that time, but it was not the last one.  We had a lot of travelers at that time.  The first year or two people traveled on horseback, the mail train carried passengers, and both men and women traveled that way.  Finally the stage line was started and our place was the station.  Then our work was so much, we hired help.  I remember washing dishes when I had to stand on a box.  I waited table before my hands were hardly big enough to hold the cups. Mother had the name of setting such a fine table.  This was in ’58 and the stage was always supposed to stop at the best place.  We were just halfway between Yreka and Jacksonville and travelers between these places made their plans to stay over night as they knew they would get a good farm meal.  We had everything to do with.  Mother could have a chicken dinner in such a short time, and then we raised all sorts of vegetables.  People came out to fish.  There was a trout stream with plenty of little speckled trout.


The years passed by and times were not so flush, so father started a branch business, there was a mining camp about thirty miles from our place, just across a range of mountains.  He butchered beef and sold two days a week in addition to our home work.  One occurrence is particularly worth relating.  Two of Yreka’s leading citizens came out to our place to fight a duel.  There were ten or twelve men in the crowd.  They sent us word several days previous to this so we had everything ready for them so they would have plenty to eat for several days.  They came about ten in the morning.  The seconds were trying to patch up the quarrel, but at noon they had not made much advance toward it.  They ate a hearty dinner, the principles also.  They also said dinner was fine.  Then they made their preparations; went out to the ground they had selected, but came back to the hotel good friends.  The trouble had all been explained away and everybody was happy.  The papers after that said if anyone had a grievance to settle, “Go to Rockafellows and get a good dinner”, and that would settle the quarrels.


This was a good country for wild plums and they were fine.  My sister and an old man and myself were out about two miles from home picking fruit.  We were on a side hill looking across the ravine to the hills on the other side.  The old man said he saw a bear, I also saw some kind of an animal looking down at us.  He was badly frightened because he had us children with him.  He put us in a tree and was ready to climb also if the creature came our way, but after awhile he turned around and went an opposite way.  We scampered home with a double quick step. There was also a fine natural soda fountain two miles from our place.  It is now called Coles Springs, as later they bought the place.


One summer we ate our Fourth of July dinner under the trees.  In the surrounding country, and especially this place, which was a lovely little dell, the pine trees smelled so good and the moss and flowers made a regular dream place.  We drank soda water until we hardly had room for air, but we just had to eat mother’s good dinner.  We had two boards nailed up with a long white table cloth, the table decked with wild flowers and ferns.  New potatoes and green peas, fried chicken, and all kept hot.  That is one of the brightest spots in my memory.


Our house was halfway between Yreka and Jacksonville and it was eighty miles from each place.  We gave dances in the winter when the sleighing was good and people would come from far and near so we would have all we could take care of.  Our tables were filled many times and our dining room was not very large. They would dance all night and sometimes go before breakfast.  Our dance room was a big upstairs chamber which had not been divided off into bedrooms.  We called it the Carell, because when we had so much travelers we would make up so many beds and so many slept there.  When they gave dances, these beds would all have to be moved out, so it made us lots of extra work but this would give room for about ten couples to dance.  Not much like dances nowadays.  At that time, I was very fond of dancing and a good dancer also, so there was no trouble about partners.  I would not more than finish one dance before I would hear, “Come Allie”, perhaps someone at the other end of the hall.  I would start and probably we would meet halfway.  I think they liked to dance with me because I enjoyed it so much,  I was only a little fat girl, but I could get around as lightly as any of the girls and even at that age I was quite vain to think I had a partner all of the time and sometimes the grown girls were wall flowers.  Human nature! This was all in the pioneer days and this was the only pleasures.


Our place was now a night station for the stage.  They carry a good many passengers.  The summer previous we had run a big dairy.  We made such lovely butter and cheese for market.  Our milk house had a bare floor.  They kept this damp; there were racks made for the milk pans.  I remember taking a slice of bread and laying it down on a pan of cream and oh, wasn’t it good.  Father was churning in a great big box churn.  It hung on a frame by the corner.  He took the lid off and went to the wall to get some cold water to wash down the butter.  I didn’t know the lid was off so I thought I would surprise him and bring the butter while he was gone.  Of course the first turn, out came a big batch of cream. Oh, but I was scared, father just came in then and the looked at me and says, “Well Allie, what have you done?” He understood in a moment and did not punish me.  He said I was so frightened I was sufficiently punished.


About this time there was quite a little excitement about the Salmon River mines and father was naturally a rover.  He could not be content to settle down.  He’d just recovered from typhoid fever, came near dying, and it left him in a collapsed condition, and so thought that if he would go out to these mines he would get his health again.  And so he did.  People were passing every day heading for this location.  He went with the rest, much against mother’s wishes. He tried very hard but did not succeed in making anything.  He came back to Walla Walla and liked it there.  He wrote to mother to dispose of their property as soon as possible and meet him there.  But this took several months, as you cannot hurry a sale.  Finally we started overland in covered wagon and a big pair of strong black horses, and mother had a driver, a friend who also wanted to go into that country.  Of course he helped make our camps and other things as we needed them.  The most I remember about it was the good times picking flowers and fruit on the roadside.  There is so much to tell about this trip, there is not space for it.  We traveled by easy stages, and the middle of the day when it was hot we would camp at the first water, and then travel in the evening when it was cool.  We would camp close to a farm when we could, so we could get feed for the horse and also produce for ourselves.  We traveled slowly until we reached Portland and then we took a boat up the Columbia as far as The Dalles, rested there a few days and then drove on slowly. This was a hot drive over the sagebrush plains.  As long as we were on the Columbia it was hot sand, but finally the road led back several miles towards the Blue Mountains and the country abounded in sage brush nearly as high as your head, and lots of bunch grass.  The horses fattened on it.  Now we traveled by night until quite late, arose early in the morning and traveled until ten and then we stopped to get breakfast and rested until the crook of the evening.


When we arrived at the Deschutes River, a mountain stream, a very rapid, rugged, and beautiful one, emptying into the Columbia where we were expecting to meet father.  We concluded to rest there for a few days. Our team was tired and so were we and we had a fine camp.  One morning quite early, we heard shouting on the other side of the river. Some of the children said it was father.  Yes, it was.  He had traveled all night and had been looking up and down for a bridge but could not find one for it was several mils up the stream, so he plunged his horse in the water and swam over.  It was a very dangerous thing to do.  We were a very, very happy family for it had been a long time since we had last seen him, a year.  We were not expecting him but mother kept him posted of our whereabouts, so was expecting him.  He was feeling and looking fine. When he left home he was sick and discouraged, he just passed through a brain fever, and this trip was just the tonic he needed.  He took us on to Walla Walla, quite a small place at that time but very lovely.  It was winter quarters for the miners. Father camped a few miles from the town, he met an old time friend who had a nice farm and lots of good things to eat.  They provided us with a house to live in while we stayed, or we rented it for an indefinite time.  We had a splendid time.  They had horses and buggy and the single brother, (there were two), took me for nice rides.  It was early fall when everything was at its best.  We had been so long on the road and much of the time we could not get anything in or above The Dalles and we appreciated plenty, more than we ever did. 


We stayed there several months, perhaps three, and then moved into Walla Walla.  We opened a boarding house for private boarders, had about twenty.  We did the work ourselves.  Mother was a good cook and manager.  Father started an express business carried both mail and express.  There was no Wells Fargo up there at that time.  He went up into Idaho, Boise, and other places.  He had relays of horses all along the road just the same as stage lines, as far as Boise City.  There were only a few houses and several business houses. He had it all his own way for quite awhile and made lots of money.  He would get 1.00 for a letter, but letters were not such common occurrences then as now.  They were few and far between.  He was acknowledged to be honest and trustworthy by the miners and business men.  They would give him large amounts of bullion to carry to Walla Walla.  That was the nearest shipping point, and he always got it through safe. There were lots of highway robbers and there were killing and robbing all of the time.  They had a regular or organized force with their captain and his men. 


It seems that amongst these men who were in and out amongst the gamblers of the town so no one was positive who they were, father had known several of them before they had followed the road.  They did not want father to suffer and were bound that it should be prevented.  In those days people all went around armed, so he was on his guard all of the time.  On this trip there was to be a lot of bullion sent to San Francisco to the mint.  One of his friends told him just about the place the robbery would take place.  Father made quiet a talk amongst them what day he would start and expressed some fear of the robbers.  He seemed to speak most of his plans among the men whom he pretended were his particular friends, knowing all of the while people suspected them, and he knew also who they were through his friend but of course he could not give it away and get this man in trouble.  He explained to the men, “Well boys, I really feel that I will need guards on this trip”, and he talked freely about the large amount of bullion that was being sent.  But that evening before they had all gathered into this hotel, father started a man out who looked like a dirty old tramp.  He looked like a tired discouraged prospector.  This was done so quietly, none noticed it.  He took a different direction until he felt safe, rounding back into the road many miles beyond where these men worked.  He got to where he could get a horse and then he traveled like lightening changing at every station, which were only a few miles apart.  He arrived at Walla Walla in much less time than they usually took.  Father followed after night so he was not molested.  They supposed he had the bullion and was too smart for them, but he out-witted them.  They expected he was going the next morning, but he arrived at walla Walla ahead of time.  He returned to Boise many times after that.  He was on the lookout all of the time fearing they would want to get even with him although he was not supposed to know that he had been conversing with the very ones who were committing so many robberies.  While he knew most of the band through this friend, they did not know it, or his life and his friend’s life would not be worth anything.  One trip he ran into this company on unwittingly.  It was after dark and he had lost his way, and he saw a campfire, and so he called to them to know where he was. Someone answered and he knew who it was, so he thought he was caught.  This man says, “Hello, hello Rocky, what are you doing out here this time of night? Come over here.  You can’t go farther.  It’s so dark, unsaddle and stake your horse”.   Well, that was the only thing he could do, so they gave him something to eat and he slept with one of the men.  They said they were going prospecting.  Father said he lay all night with his hand on his gun expecting to be killed any moment.  But these men always kept posted when there was a clean up and a lot of gold due to be sent out, so they knew that he had nothing to speak of this time; therefore, they let him go in the morning, just as an old comrade.  Another time he had a heavy bullion shipment and was keeping a good outlook. This was rolling ground and sagebrush country in Powder River Valley.  Some distance ahead he saw two horsemen who looked to him like they might mean mischief. To be on the safe side as he went down out of sight between the hills he took his sack of gold dust and threw it as far as he could, sent it in a clump of brush, marking the place with his eye.  He did not leave the r